What are the two branches of science?

Science is a diverse field that can be broadly categorized into two main branches: natural science and social science. Natural science encompasses the study of the physical world and natural phenomena, including disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics. By conducting experiments and observations, natural scientists seek to understand the underlying principles that govern the universe.

On the other hand, social science focuses on the study of human behavior, societies, and relationships. This branch of science includes disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and economics, which aim to explore and explain the complexities of human interactions and societal structures. Both natural and social sciences play crucial roles in advancing our knowledge and understanding of the world around us.

Science, a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of explanations and predictions about the universe, is sub-divided into two broad branches: Natural Science and Social Science. These branches are further divided into sub-disciplines or fields to create a hierarchical structure for the organization of scientific knowledge.

Natural Science

The first branch, Natural Science, is the systematic study of the natural world through observation and experiment. This branch aims to explain, predict, and understand natural phenomena. This broad branch is further divided into physical sciences, earth sciences, and life sciences.

Physical Sciences

Physical Sciences involve the study of non-living systems. This encompasses areas such as Physics, Chemistry, and Astronomy. Physics, as the study of matter and energy, plays an integral role in understanding the physical universe. Chemistry, the field concerned with the composition, properties, and reactions of matter, also plays a critical part. Astronomy explores celestial bodies, offering explanations for phenomena beyond our planet.

Earth Sciences

The study of our planet and its systems falls under Earth Sciences. This includes fields like Geology (the study of solid Earth and rocks), Oceanography (study of our oceans), Meteorology (study of the atmosphere and weather), and Paleontology (study of fossil organisms and their evolution).

Life Sciences

The final subset of Natural Science is the Life Sciences. This extremely broad category includes disciplines like Biology (the study of life), Botany (study of plants), Zoology (study of animals), and Microbiology (study of microscopic organisms). Biology endeavours to explain the complex interactions within biological systems, leading to a better understanding of life and living organisms.

Social Sciences

The second branch of science, Social Science, revolved around the study of human behaviour and society. This branch employs methods that are primarily qualitative, though many sub-branches do use quantitative techniques. Core areas of Social Science include Sociology, Psychology, Political Science, Economics, and Anthropology.


Sociology aims to understand societal behaviour, structures, and development. It looks at how societies operate and interact, studying their formations, institutions, and changes over time.


Psychology focuses on understanding human mind and behavior. It includes various specialties like developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and social psychology among others.

Political Science

Political Science is all about studying political behavior, governmental systems and politics itself. It helps in understanding the workings of our political systems, how they’re formed, and their impact on us.


Economics studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It explores how individuals, businesses, governments, and nations make choices on how to allocate resources.


The study of human societies and cultures, their development, and the science of humans and human behavior, both past and present, is understood under Anthropology.

In conclusion, with the division of science into two branches, Natural and Social Science, we can organize and build our understanding of the physical universe and human society in a systematic and logical way.

The two main branches of science are natural sciences and social sciences. Natural sciences focus on the study of the physical and natural world, while social sciences explore human behavior and society. Both branches play a crucial role in expanding our understanding of the world around us.

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